Symposium Introduction || Detailed Schedule of Events

Steve Chu

Moderator, first symposium session

Steven Chu is the Theodore and Frances Geballe Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University. Professor Chu's research is primarily in atomic physics, quantum electronics, polymer and bio-physics.

His thesis and postdoctoral work at Berkeley, the observation of parity non-conservation in atomic transitions in 1978, was one of the early confirmations of the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow theory that unifies the weak and electromagnetic forces.

While at Bell Laboratories he and Allen Mills did the first laser spectroscopy of positronium, the bound state of an electron and positron in 1982. They went on to measure the 1s-2s energy level splitting of that atom to an accuracy of a few parts per billion. They also made the first measurement of the corresponding transition in muonium, an atom consisting of µ+ and an electron.

In 1985, he led the group that showed how to first cool and then trap atoms with light. The optical trap was also used to trap microscopic particles in water: these so-called "optical tweezers" are widely used in biology. The first optical trapping was followed by the demonstration of the magneto-optic trap, the most commonly used atom trap. After joining the Stanford Physics Department in 1987, Chu (and independently, Dalibard and Cohen-Tannoudji) explained how multi-level atoms can be cooled far below the minimum temperature predicted by the theory of two-level atoms. His group also demonstrated the first atomic fountain and then made the first atomic fountain frequency standard to exceed the short term stability of atomic clocks maintained by standards laboratories. They developed a novel atom interferometer that has already exceeded the accuracy of the most accurate commercial inertial sensors. Using the optical tweezers, Chu developed methods to simultaneously visualize and manipulate single bio-molecules. Using this new technique, his group have used single DNA molecules to address a number of long standing problems in polymer science. In addition to the work in atomic and polymer physics, he is currently developing methods to study the interactions of individual bio-molecules.

Other contributions include the study of exciton energy transfer in solids, anomalous pulse propagation in absorbing medium, and the development of a transmission line, near-field microscope.

Chu has been awarded the Herbert Broida Prize for Spectroscopy (American Physical Society, 1987), Richtmyer Memorial Prize Lecturer (APS/AAPT, 1990), co-winner of the King Faisal International Prize for Science (1993), the Arthur Schawlow Prize for Laser Science (APS, 1994), the William Meggers Award for Laser Spectroscopy (Optical Society of America, 1994), the Science for Art Prize (Louis Vitton - MŲet Hennesey, 1995), and co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (1997). Chu received a Humboldt Senior Scientist award (1995) and the Guggenheim Fellowship (1996).

He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Academica Sinica, and is a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Korean Academy of Science and Engineering.

An article about Professor Chu, "Molecule Manipulator on the Wilde Side", appeared in the June 30, 1998 edition of the New York Times. Please note: When you attempt to access this article, you will be asked to register for a free subscription to New York Times on the Web (unless you already have one).

Joel Primack

Topic: "Humanity's First Verifiable Creation Story: What Difference Does It Make?"

Abstract: The cosmological evidence now pouring in from the new space- and ground-based telescopes is answering cosmological questions that people have been asking for millenia. The data show pretty convincingly that the Big Bang really happened, and I think that the foundations we are now constructing for scientific cosmology are likely to be permanent. In this talk, I will summarize this evidence, explain the larger picture of the nature of the universe that is emerging, and briefly discuss some of the human implications.

I received my A.B. in Physics from Princeton in 1966 and my Ph.D. in Physics from Stanford in 1970. I was a Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard, 1970-73. Since 1973 I have been on the faculty of the University of California, Santa Cruz, since 1983 as Professor of Physics. I have supervised all or part of the research of 25 graduate students and eight postdoctoral fellows, held more than a dozen visiting appointments at universities and research laboratories around the world, and organized many scientific meetings and symposia. I have published over 150 scientific papers, and I have also written a number of articles aimed at a more general audience, including encyclopedia articles. I have been invited to speak at many universities, advanced schools, and scientific meetings about my research, and I have also given many popular talks about my work on science and on policy issues -- including a number of joint programs with my wife Nancy Abrams, with whom I have worked for many years on technology policy and on the implications of science.

In 1995 I was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ``for pioneering efforts in the establishment of the AAAS Congressional Science Fellows Program and for dedication to expanding the use of science in policymaking throughout government.'' I also helped to create the American Physical Society (APS) program of studies on issues of public policy, the APS Forum on Physics and Society, the AAAS Clearinghouse on Science and Human Rights, and several other social innovations in science and technology policy. I coauthored a book [1] with Frank von Hippel, with whom I also shared the 1977 Physics and Society Award of the American Physical Society. My most recent policy work has been on efforts to protect the near-Earth space environment; my popular articles on this have appeared in {\it Science}, {\it Technology Review}, and {\it Scientific American}.

After helping to create what is now called the ``Standard Model'' of particle physics, I began working in cosmology in 1980 and became a leader in the new field of particle astrophysics. I am one of the main inventors and developers of the theory of Cold Dark Matter [2], which has become the basis of the standard modern picture of structure formation in the universe. I was elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 1988 ``for pioneering contributions to gauge theory and cosmology.'' I am currently using supercomputers to simulate and visualize [3] the evolution of the universe under various assumptions, in order to compare the predictions of these theories to the observational data. My group's research and scientific visualizations were featured on the international science documentary TV program ``Quantum.'' I was one of the main advisors for the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum's 1996 IMAX film ``Cosmic Voyage,'' which features several cosmological scientific visualizations.

My research in cosmology is described in most modern books on the subject, and I was profiled at some length in several recent books. Dennis Overbye's {\it Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos} (1991) also describes songs that Nancy Abrams wrote for and performed at astronomy conferences, and includes a photo of both of us. I am also frequently interviewed by reporters for print and broadcast media; for example, I was interviewed in the NBC Evening News coverage of the announcement of the discovery of the fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation on April 27, 1992; and my phrase ``the handwriting of God'' was used as the headline for {\it Newsweek}'s article on this discovery. This discovery was in accord with the predictions of the Cold Dark Matter theory.

As cosmology begins to obtain reliable data on the origin, evolution, and large scale structure of the universe, I have begun to think seriously about the larger implications of the new pictures that are emerging. One of my first efforts in this direction was a talk I was invited to give at the Bezalel Institute in Jerusalem in 1990 to leading Israeli artists about how to visualize the universe. I have participated in several symposia at AAAS Annual Meetings on topics in science and religion, including one in 1993 with Nancy Abrams. I was an advisor to, and a participant in, the 1996-98 Science and the Spiritual Quest project of the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences (part of the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley). As a member of the advisory committee for the AAAS Program of Dialogue Between Science and Religion, I am co-organizer with Owen Gingerich of Harvard of a symposium entitled ``Before the Beginning'' at the 1999 AAAS Annual Meeting, and also of a three-day conference on ``Cosmic Questions'' to be held in April 1999 at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.

In 1993 I co-taught a very successful course on "Cosmology and Culture" at the University of California, Santa Cruz, with Triloki Pandey, a professor of anthropology who specializes in Zuni and Hindu cultures. Nancy Abrams and I coauthored an article on medieval Jewish mysticism -- Kabbalah -- and modern cosmology [4] which received a prize from the John Templeton Foundation in 1996 as an Exemplary Paper in Theology and the Natural Sciences. (I have studied Kabbalah informally for a number of years with my friend Daniel Matt, professor of Jewish studies at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley -- who credits me for inspiring him to write his recent book {\it God and the Big Bang} (1996).) Nancy and I taught a revised version of the Cosmology and Culture course in 1996 (as a seminar, with support from the Templeton Foundation Science-Religion course program) and in 1997 (as a lecture course). We taught it again in 1998 (as a larger lecture course), and we are now writing a book on this subject.

Research Interests: (taken from UC Santa Cruz Web site)
"Joel Primack's research has mainly been in relativistic quantum field theory, especially gauge and supersymmetric theories and their implications, and in the developing field of cosmology and particle astrophysics. In collaboration with colleagues from astronomy, he developed the "cold dark matter" theory which has helped to set the agenda for theoretical and observational cosmology for more than a decade. More recently, he has been investigating the implications of various hypotheses regarding the identity of the dark matter for the formation and distribution of galaxies. He also works on science and technology policy and on the cultural implications of the ongoing revolution in cosmology. He has developed computer games for teaching relativity and quantum mechanics, and state-of-the-art visualizations of his cosmological supercomputer simulations."

Andrei Linde

Topic: "Self-reproducing Inflationary Universe".
This theory is the further development of the standard Big Bang cosmology which will be represented by Sir Martin Rees.

During my talk I will show three very short computer generated movies.

In the beginning of the 80's a new theory of the evolution of the universe was proposed. It was called inflationary cosmology. According to this theory, the universe at the very early stages of its evolution came through the stage of inflation, exponentially rapid expansion in an unstable vacuum-like state (a state with large energy density, but without elementary particles). Inflationary cosmology is different in many respects from the standard Big Bang theory. According to the Big Bang theory, our universe looks like a huge expanding ball. Inflationary cosmology asserts that it is a ball producing other balls, ad infinitum. Therefore the evolution of the universe has no end and may have no beginning. The universe in this scenario looks like a huge expanding fractal. After inflation the universe becomes divided into different exponentially large domains inside which properties of elementary particles and even dimension of space-time may be different. Thus, the new cosmological theory leads to a considerable modification of the standard point of view on the structure and evolution of the universe and on our own place in the world.

Biography and Publications:
Andrei Linde was born in Moscow on 2 March 1948. In 1966 -1971 he studied physics in the Moscow State University. In 1972 he became a graduate student at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow. In 1972-1974 he together with David Kirzhnits developed a theory of cosmological phase transitions, which should occur at high temperatures in superdense matter described by unified theories of weak, strong and electromagnetic interactions. In 1974 Andrei Linde has written his PhD on cosmological phase transitions. In 1975 he started his work at the Lebedev Physical Institute. In 1976 he derived the so-called Linde-Weinberg constraint on the Higgs boson mass. In 1976 he also derived a general upper bound on the heavy fermion masses in gauge theories, which 4 years later was independently obtained by other authors and used as an upper bound on the top quark mass. Andrei Linde is one of the authors of the inflationary universe scenario. In 1974 he pointed out that the energy density of a homogeneous scalar field plays the role of the vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) in the Einstein equations. In 1976-1978 he has shown that the energy released during the phase transitions from a strongly supercooled vacuum state may be sufficient to transform a cold universe to a hot one. These observations later became the basic ingredients of the inflationary cosmology. In 1982 he suggested the new inflationary universe scenario. His first paper on this scenario became the most often cited paper of the year in physics. In 1983 he proposed the chaotic inflationary universe scenario, and in 1986 - the theory of a self-reproducing inflationary universe. At present he continues his work on inflation and quantum cosmology and studies various implications of inflationary cosmology for the elementary particle theory and for the theory of the large-scale structure of the universe. Among his latest developments are the hybrid inflation scenario, the theory of a stationary inflationary universe, the theory of reheating after inflation, and the theory of an open inflationary universe.

Andrei Linde is a Professor of Physics at Stanford University, USA. He works there together with his wife, Professor Renata Kallosh. He has two sons, Dimitri and Alexander. He is an author of more than 150 papers on particle physics, phase transitions and cosmology. He has written two books on particle physics and quantum cosmology: "Inflation and Quantum Cosmology" (Academic Press, Boston, 1990) and "Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology" (Harwood. Chur, Switzerland, 1990). In 1978 he was awarded by the Lomonosov prize of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1987 he was a Morris Loeb lecturer at the Harvard University. His results are described in several popular books on cosmology and in such popular magazines and newspapers as Time, New York Times, The Guardian, The New Yorker, Scientific American, Wired, Discover, and New Scientist.

Thomas Sheehan

Topic: "A Response on Behalf of Philosophy and Religion"

Thomas Sheehan is Professor of Philosophy at Loyola University Chicago, where he has taught since 1972. A native of San Francisco, Sheehan took his Ph.D. from Fordham University, New York, in 1970. His research interests include twentieth-century German philosophy, classical Greek and medieval philosophy, social philosophy, and philosophy of religion.

He has published Edmund Husserl: Psychological and Transcendental Phenomenology (1997, with Richard Palmer), Karl Rahner: The Philosophical Foundations (1987), The First Coming (1986), and Heidegger, the Man and the Thinker (1981), as well as many scholarly articles. He has also taught in Europe, and done political work in Central America.

Alain Aspect

Topic(s): "Experimental Tests of the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: from Gedanken Experiments to Real Experiments".

I have in mind both: Wave particle duality and Einstein Podolsky Rosen correlations and Bell's inequalities.

This addresses clearly the following points:

UNCERTAINTY : what conclusions can we draw from these experiments ? How confident are we ?

MUTUAL IMPACT : how much can we communicate to humanities practitioners, what we (scientists) think is the real problem ? Does it help to describe real experiments ?

PERMANENCE OF KNOWLEDGE : quantum mechanics has obviously changed the worldview of scientists. What is the impact on the humanities ?


Born: June 15, 1947 in Agen, Lot et Garonne, France.
Married, two children.


Past positions:

Present positions:

Past research:

Present research:



Introduction aux lasers et 'l'optique quantique', (with G. Grynberg et C. Fabre), Ellipses, Paris 1997.
English translation to be published at Cambridge U. Press.

Publications relevant to "Cosmologies and Worldviews":

ASPECT A., Phys. Letters A, 54 (1975) p.117: "Proposed experiment to test separable hidden-variable theories"

ASPECT A., Phys. Rev. D, 14 (1976) p.1944: "Proposed experiment to test the non-separability of quantum mechanics"

ASPECT A., GRANGIER P., ROGER G., Phys. Rev. Lett., 47 (1981) p.460: "Experimental tests of realistic local theories via Bell's theorem"

ASPECT A., GRANGIER P., ROGER G., Phys. Rev. Lett., 49 (1982) p.91: "Experimental realization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedankenexperiment; a new violation of Bell's inequalities"

ASPECT A., DALIBARD J., ROGER G., Phys. Rev. Lett., 49 (1982) p.1804: "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers"

ASPECT A., GRANGIER P., Lett. Nuovo Cimento, 43 (1985) p.345: "About resonant scattering and other hypothetical effects in the Orsay atomic cascade experimental tests of Bell inequalities: a discussion, and some new experimental data"

GRANGIER P., ASPECT A., VIGUE J., Phys. Rev. Lett., 54 (1985) p.418: "Quantum interference effect for two atoms radiating a single photon"

GRANGIER P., ROGER G., ASPECT A., Europhys. Lett., 1 (1986) p.173-179: "Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences"

GRANGIER P., ROGER G., ASPECT A., HEIDMANN A., REYNAUD S., Phys. Rev. Lett., 57 (1986) p.687: "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence"

ASPECT A., GRANGIER P., Hyperfine Interactions, 37 (1987) p.3:"Wave -particle duality for single photons"

ASPECT A., GRANGIER P., ROGER G., J. Optics, 20 (1989) p.119-129: "Dualitè onde-particule pour un photon unique"

ASPECT A., J. Physique, Colloque C2, (1981) p.C2-63: "Expèriences sur les inègalitès de Bell"

ASPECT A. , Frontiers of Non-Equilibrium Statistical Physics, (1986): "Comment on a classical model of EPR experiment with quantum mechanical correlations and Bell inequalities" (NATO Advanced Study Institute, Santa Fe, 1984 : Plenum)

GRANGIER P., ROGER G., ASPECT A., Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 480 (1986): "A new light on single photon interferences" (New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory, New York, 1986)

ASPECT A., GRANGIER P., Sixty years of uncertainty, (1990): ed. by A. Miller, Plenum (1990) : "Wave-Particle Duality: a case study"

ASPECT A., GRANGIER P., Trends in International Optics, ed. Goodman, (1991): "One photon light pulses versus attenuated classical light pulses", Academic Press

Peter Galison

Topic: "Einstein's Clocks: High Theory and Lowly Material Culture."


Department of the History of Science
Harvard University

Birth date and Citizenship: May 17, 1955, New York, N. Y., U.S.A.

Professional Experience:



Ph.D. Thesis "Large Weak Isospin and the W Mass." (Limits on weak isospin in a chiral SU(N) model.) Advisors: Howard Georgi and John Preskill. Examiners: Howard Georgi, Sheldon Glashow and John Preskill. June 1983.

Ph.D. Thesis "How Experiments End: Three case studies in the Interaction of Experiment and Theory in Modern Physics." (How physicists decided that an effect is real and not an artifact in an experiment. How this has changed during the last seventy years.) Advisors: Erwin Hiebert and Gerald Holton. Readers: Edward Purcell, Erwin Hiebert, Gerald Holton. Especially on the third case I worked closely with Steven Weinberg. June 1981.

M. Phil. Thesis "Non-locality, Relativity, and Retrodiction." (Problems in the philosophy of quantum mechanics associated with relativistic quantum effects.) Advisor: Mary Hesse. Readers: Mary Hesse and R. Harre. August 1978.

B.A. Honors Thesis "Minkowski's Development of Spacetime: From Visual Thinking to the Absolute World." Advisor: Erwin Hiebert. Readers: Gerald Holton and Lorraine Daston. June 1977.

Academic Honors:

Professional Affiliations:



"Instantaneous Electron Energy Distribution Function in Ion Waves," (with D. Gresillon) Physics of Fluids 16 (1973): 2180- 2183.

"One Band Density of States for Some Models of Amorphous Semiconductors," (with R. Alben, L. von Heimendahl, and M. Long) J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 8 (1975): 468-472.

"Model for the Structure of Amorphous Selenium and Tellurium," (with M. Long, R. Alben, G.A.N. Connell) Physical ReviewB 13 (1976): 1821-1829.

"Large Weak Isospin and the W Mass," Nuclear Physics B232 (1984): 26-60.

"Two Z's or Not Two Z's?" (with A. Manohar) Physics Letters B 136 (1984): 279-283.

"Calculation of the Composite Higgs Mass," (with H. Georgi and David B. Kaplan) Physics Letters B 143B (1984): 152.

"Finding an Intermediate Mass Higgs Boson," (with J. F. Gunion, P. Kalyniak, and M. Soldate) Snowmass Summer Study, (1984): 103.

"Hunting for the Intermediate Mass Higgs Boson in a Hadron Collider," (with J. F. Gunion, P. Kalyniak, and M. Soldate) Physics Rev. Letters 54 (1985): 1226-1229.

"Searching for the Intermediate Mass Higgs Boson," (with J. F. Gunion, P. Kalyniak, and M. Soldate) Physics Rev. D 34 (1986): 101-121.

"Marietta Blau: Between Nazis and Nuclei" - Exerpt from Image & Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics, reviewed in Physics Today, November, 1997 pp 42-48

History and Philosophy of Science

"Minkowski's Space-Time: From Visual Thinking to the Absolute World," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 10 (1979): 85-121.

"Model and Reality in Descartes' Theory of Light," Synthesis 4 (1979): 2-23.

"Theoretical Predispositions in Experimental Physics: Einstein and the Gyromagnetic Experiments, 1915-1925, " Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 12:2 (1982): 285-323.

"Re-reading the Past from the End of Physics; Maxwell's Equations in Retrospect," in L. Graham, W.

Lepenies and P. Weingart, eds., Functions and Uses of Disciplinary Histories (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1983): 35-51.

"How the First Neutral Current Experiments Ended," Reviews of Modern Physics 55 (1983): 477-509.

"The Discovery of the Muon and the Failed Revolution against Quantum Electrodynamics," Centaurus 26 (1983): 262-316.

"Descartes' Comparisons: From the Invisible to the Visible." Part of a three part symposium (with L. J. Daston and K. Park),"Sensible Approaches: Bacon, Galileo, and Descartes on Imagination and Analogy," Isis 75 (1984): 311-326.

"Bubble Chambers and the Experimental Workplace," in P. Achinstein and 0. Hannaway eds., Experiment and Observation in Modern Physical Science (Cambridge: MIT-Bradford Press, 1985): 309-373.

"The Evolution of Large-Scale Research in Physics," in Report of the HEPAP subpanel on Future Modes of Experimental Research in High Energy Physics DOE/ER-0380 (July 1988): 79-93.

"Philosophy in the Laboratory." The Journal of Philosophy 85 (1988): 525-527.

"History, Philosophy, and the Central Metaphor," Science in Context 2 (1988): 197-212.

"Multiple Constraints, Simultaneous Solutions," PSA 2 (1988): 157-163.

"Artificial Clouds, Real Particles," (with A. Assmus) in D. Gooding, ed., The Uses of Experiment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989): 225-274.

"Bubbles, Sparks, and the Postwar Laboratory," in L. Brown, M. Dresden and L. Hoddeson, eds., Pions to Quarks, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989): 213-251.

"Physics Between War and Peace," in E. Mendelsohn, P. Weingart, and M. Roe Smith, eds., Science, Technology and the Military. (Boston: Reidel, 1989): 47-86.

"In Any Light: Scientists and the Decision to Build the Superbomb," (with B. Bernstein) Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 19 (1989): 267-347.

"Aufbau/Bauhaus: Logical Positivism and Architectural Modernism," Critical Inquiry 16 (1990): 709-752. Published in German translation as "Aufbau/Bauhaus: Logischer Positivismus und architektonischer Modernismus," in Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 43 (1995): 4, 653-685.

Panel on Scientific Responsibility and the Conduct of Research, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process, Vol. 1. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1992.

"The Many Faces of Big Science" in P. Galison and B. Hevly, eds., Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992): 1-17.

"Controlling the Monster: Stanford and the Growth of Physics Research, 1935-1962," (with B. Hevly and R. Lowen) in P. Galison and B. Hevly, eds., Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992): 46-77.

"The Image of Objectivity," (with Lorraine Daston) Representations 40 (1992): 81-128.

"FORTRAN, Physics, and Human Nature," in M. J. Nye, J. Richards, and R. Stuewer, eds., The Invention of Physical Science (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992): 225-260.

"The Cultural Meaning of Aufbau," in F. Stadler, ed., Scientific Philosophy: Origins and Developments (Dordrecht-Boston-London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993): 75-93.

"The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision," Critical Inquiry 21 (1994): 228-266. Published in German translation as, "Die Ontologie des Feindes," H.J. Rheinberger, editor, Räume des Wissens, Repräsentation, Codierung, Spur. (Berlin: Akademie des Wissens 1997): 281-324.

"Theory Bound and Unbound: Superstrings and Experiment," in Friedel Weinert, ed., Laws of Nature: Essays on the Philosophical, Scientific and Historical Dimensions (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995): 369-408.

"Context and Constraints," in J. Z. Buchwald, ed., Scientific Practice: Theories and Stories of Physics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995): 13-41.

"Constructing Modernism: The Cultural Location of Aufbau," in R. N. Giere and A. W. Richardson, eds., The Origins of Logical Empiricism. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol 16 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996): 17-44.

"Pure and Hybrid Detectors: Mark I and the Psi," in Laurie Brown, Lillian Hoddeson, Michael Riordan, and Max Dresden, eds., The Rise of the Standard Model, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

"Die Amerikanisierung der Einheit," Deutsche Z. Philosophie, Berlin 44 (1996): 837-853.

"Three Laboratories," Social Research, 64:3 (Fall, 1997): 1127-1155

"Material Culture, Theoretical Culture and Delocalization," in John Krige and Dominique Pestre, eds., Science in the Twentieth Century, (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997): 669-682

"The Americanization of Unity", Daedalus, (Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences) Volume 127, No. 1, Cambridge, MA, ( 1998)

"The Collective Author" Scientic Authorship, Mario Biagioli, Ed., (forthcoming)


Galison, P. How Experiments End (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1987)

Galison, P., ed. (with B. Hevly). Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992)

Galison, P., ed. (with D. Stump). The Disunity of Science: Contexts, Boundaries, and Power (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996).

Galison, P. Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997). Galison, P.,ed. (with E. Thompson). The Architecture of Science (MIT Press, Cambridge; forthcoming, 1998).

Galison, P., ed. (with Caroline Jones). Picturing Science, Producing Art (New York: Routledge, 1998).

Galison, P., ed. (with Alex Roland). Atmospheric Flight (under review)


"Kuhn and the Quantum Controversy," Review of Black Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity 1894-1912 by Thomas S. Kuhn. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science32 (1981): 71-85.

Review of The Rise of Robert Millikan: Portrait of a Life in American Science by Robert H. Kargon. Joumal of American History (1983): 1028-9.

Review of The Infancy of Atomic Physics by A. Keller. Science 255 (1984): 311.

"How the World Turns," Review of Revolution in Science by I. Bernard Cohen. The New Republic, 194:16, Issue 3,718 (1986): 37-40.

Review of Representing and Intervening. Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science by Ian Hacking. Isis 286 (1986): 118-120.

Review of The Neglect of Experiment by Allan Franklin. Isis 79 (1988): 467-470.

"Metaphysics and Texas," Review of Dreams of a Final Theory: The Search for the Fundamental Laws of Nature by Steven Weinberg. The New Republic, 209:10, Issue 4,103 (1993): 40 - 43.

"Descartes' World," Review of Descartes: An Intellectual Biography by Stephen Gaukroger. The New Republic, 214:20, Issue 4,243 (1996): 39-45.

Dudley Herschbach

Topic: "Sacred and Profane Love"

My intent is to address, in a friendly but at times contrarian or ironic way, the three central themes outlined in the "topic description" sent to us. In particular, I'll want to talk a bit about distinctive aspects of the epistimology of science, especially the fruitfulness of uncertainty. Also must point out why I cannot agree with the statement attributed to Gianni Vattimo (I'll try to see his book beforehand). Likewise, I cannot agree with the statement, toward the end of the "Humanists' Version," that "it has become the norm among scientists to completely supersede, etc." My chief aim is to emphasize what I see as heartening evidence and opportunities for renewed convergence, or consilence, as advocated by my eloquent colleague, E.O. Wilson.

My title of course is that of Titian's famous painting. I hope it conveys something that to my mind parallels aspects of "The Sciences and the Humanities" and "Cosmologies and Worldviews." Particularly I deem it appropriate that the question which of the two female figures in the painting depicts worldly love and which divine love is still unresolved, although debated by scholars for centuries.


Frank B. Baird, Jr. Professor of Science, Harvard University

Dudley Herschbach was born in San Jose, California (1932) and received his B.S. degree in Mathematics (1954) and M.S. in Chemistry (1955) at Stanford University, followed by an A.M. degree in Physics (1956) and Ph.D. in Chemical Physics (1958) at Harvard. After a term as Junior Fellow in the Society of Fellows at Harvard (1957-1959), he was a member of the Chemistry Faculty at the University of California, Berkeley (1959-1963), before returning to Harvard as Professor of Chemistry (1963), where he is now Baird Professor of Science (since 1976). He has served as Chairman of the Chemical Physics program (1964-1977) and the Chemistry Department (1977-1980), as a member of the Faculty Council (1980-1983), and Co-Master with his wife Georgene of Currier House (1981-1986). His teaching includes graduate courses in quantum mechanics, chemical kinetics, molecular spectroscopy, and collision theory, as well as undergraduate courses in physical chemistry and general chemistry for freshmen, his most challenging assignment. He is engaged in several efforts to improve K-12 science education and public understanding of science. He serves as Chair of the Board of Trustees of Science Service, which publishes Science News and conducts the Westinghouse Science Search and the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair.

He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the Royal Chemical Society of Great Britain. His awards include the Pure Chemistry Prize of the American Chemical Society (1965), the Linus Pauling Medal (1978), the Michael Polanyi Medal (1981), the Irving Langmuir Prize of the American Physical Society (1983), the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1986), jointly with Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi, the National Medal of Science (1991), the Jaroslav Heyrovsky Medal (1992), the Sierra Nevada Distinguished Chemist Award (1993), the Kosolapoff Award of the ACS (1994), and the William Walker Prize (1994).

Professor Herschbach has published over 350 research papers. His current research is devoted to molecular beam studies of reaction stereodynamics, intermolecular forces in liquids and a dimensional scaling approach to electronic structure.


1. "Space Quantization: Otto Stern's Lucky Star," B. Friedrich and D. R. Herschbach, in Daedalus, Science and Culture, 127, 165-191 (1998).

2. "Szilard and His Dolpins," D. R. Herschbach, in Leo Szilard Centenary Volume, pp. 157-162, George Marx, Ed. (Eötvös Physical Society, Budapest, 1998).

3. "Chemistry: Blithe Sibling of Physics," D. R. Herschbach, Physics Today 50, 11-13 (April 1997).

4. Book Review: "D. R. Herschbach on Misunderstanding Science? The Public Reconstruction of Science and Technology, in Science Spectra, 7, pp. 76-77, Alan Irwin and Brian Wynne, Eds. (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

5. "Teaching Chemistry" as a Liberal Art, D. R. Herschbach, in AAC&U Liberal Education 82 (4), 10-17 (1996).

6. "Imaginary Gardens with Real Toads," by D. R. Herschbach, Conference on The Flight from Science and Reason, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 775, 11-30 (1996).

7. Book Review: "A Time When Science and Politics were Friends," D. R. Herschbach on Science and the Founding Fathers by I. B. Cohen (Norton, 1996), Physics World, January 1996, pp. 43-44.

8. "Ben Franklin's Scientific Amusements," D. R. Herschbach, Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 48 (1), 23-43, October 1994.

9. "Dense Fluids: Molecules in Perpetual Collision," D. Herschbach, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 137, 532-544 (1993).

10. "The Dolphin Oracle," D. R. Herschbach, Harvard Magazine 95 (No. 3), 57-59 (1993).

Andreas Kablitz

Topic: "The relationship between Physics and Ethics in Dante's Divina Commedia: An Archeology of Cosmological Imagination."

Die Leitfrage bildet das Problem der Vermittlung zwischen der Endlichkeit des Kosmos und der Unendlichkeit Gottes. Dabei lege ich die These zugrunde, dass die neuzeitliche Konzeption eines unendlichen Raums die Antwort auf das betreffende mittelalterliche Problem bildet. Die Loesung ist haeretisch, aber sie kann auch nicht anders ausfallen, und eben um dieser Brisanz willen endet sie - vorerst - auf dem Scheiterhaufen. Innerhalb der mittelalterlichen Kosmologie kommt nun Dantes Commedia eine besondere Rolle zu. Gegen die Erwartung gewinnt der "poetische" Text groessere Praezision als der theoretische, weil er Kosmologie anschaulich zu machen hat, wo sich die Theorie auf begriffliche Distinktionen zurueckziehen kann. Dantes Commedia ist insofern auch die Einloesung eines praemodernen Konzepts von Theorie, das deren etymologischem Sinn weit naeher stand und in der Tat die hoechste Form der Anschauung darstellte, weshalb sie auch in der visio beatificata ihre Erfuellung findet.

Dantes Kosmologie moechte ich vor allem aus der Perspektive einer Konfrontation mit neuzeitlichen Entwuerfen behandeln und dabei im besonderen zwei Aspekte verhandeln. Zum einen geht es mir um eine Problematisierung der allenthalben zu findenden Ansicht, praemoderne Kosmologie beruhe im Unterschied zur neuzeitlichen nicht auf Beobachtung. Schliesslich ist eine Theorie, in der sich der Himmel um die Erde dreht, eine Theorie des Evidenten und gruendet insofern auch auf Beobachtung. Mir ist es deshalb darum zu tun, das je andere Verhaeltnis zwischen Theorie und Beobachtung etwas zu praezisieren. Waehrend praemoderne Theorie die hoechste Form der Anschauung bildet, wird fuer neuzeitliche Wissenschaft die Theorie bereits Teil der Beobachtung. Beobachtung wird technifiziert - anfangs mit so harmlosen Instrumenten wie dem Fernrohr - und sie wird in Daten uebersetzt, also mathematisiert. Deshalb ist sie eine Theorie des Unevidenten. Beobachtung bedeutet hier Misstrauen gegenueber dem Augenschein. (Deshalb 'trial and error' als Prozess eines Experiments.) Zum zweiten moechte ich an wenigstens einem Beispiel demonstrieren, dass die Kategorien, in denen Kosmologie gedacht wird, sich letztlich zwischen ihrer praemodernen und ihrere neuzeitlichen Variante nicht so furchtbar aendern, sich indessen ihre jeweilige Zuordnung zueinander wesentlich verwandelt. Einen Angelpnkt von Dantes 'Weltbild' bildet die Annahme, dass Gott durch seine Liebe die Gestirne bewegt, indem er bei diesen Geschoepfen die Sehnsucht der Rueckkehr zu ihrem Ursprung ausloest, das Begehren des Endlichen nach dem Unendlichen. So 'mythisch' sich dies ausnehmen mag, auf einer bestimmetn Abstraktionsebene betrachtet, arbeitet auch Newton mit diesen Kategorien. Denn waehrend bei Dante Gott als Gegenstand des desiderium die Kreisbewegung der Gestirne ausloest, tut dies bei Newton die Gravitation. Hier wie dort handelt es sich um Anziehungskraft, nur ist sie von dem unendlichen Gott auf den endlichen Koerper verlegt. Bezeichnenderweise kommt aber auch Newton nicht ohne die Unendlichkeit fuer sein Gravitationsmodell aus. Denn er braucht den unendlichen Raum, weil sonst sein Kosmos durch die Gravitation kollabieren wuerde. (Es scheint mir uebrigens nicht uninteressant zu sein, dass betreffende Prozesse theoretischer Innovation in Gestalt logischer Innovation ebenso innerhalb der neuzeitlichen Kosmologie zu beabachten sind. Faellt es nicht auf, dass die Theorie des big bang und der permanenten Expansion des Universums die genaue Umkehrung der Achillesferse von Newtons Kosmologie bildet, der am Ende nicht ausgeraeumten Gefaehrdung, die das Universum kollabieren liesse?)


Born November 8, 1957

1976 Abitur; Beginn des Studiums der Romanistik und Geschichte an der Universitaet zu Koeln

1977 (-1981) Stipendiat der Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes

1981 Staatsexamen an der Universitaet zu Koeln

1981-1988 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut fuer Romanische Philologie der Freien Universitaet Berlin

August 25, 1983 Promotion

October 1986 Habilitationsstipendiums der DFG

July 21, 1987 Habilitation

September 1987 Von der DFG finanzierter Forschungsaufenthalt in Florenz zur Arbeit in der Bibilioteca Nazionale

November 1, 1988 Anstellung als Oberassistent am Institut fuer Romanische Philologie der Freien Universitaet Berlin

November 1988 Heisenberg-Stipendium

April 1, 1989-September 30, 1989 Arbeit als Heisenberg-Stipendiat am Petrarca-Institut der Universitaet zu Koeln

October 1, 1989 Ernennung zum C3 Professor fuer Romanische Philologie an der Universitaet Tuebingen April 15, 1990-September 30, 1994 Ordinarius fuer Italienische Philologie an der LMU Muenchen; zugleich Vorstand des Instituts fuer Italienische Philologie October 1, 1994 C4 Professor fuer Romanische Philologie an der Universitaet zu Koeln Direktor des Petrarca-Instituts an der Universit t zu K ln 1996 Aufnahme in das Herausgebergremium des Romanistischen Jahrbuchs January 16, 1997 Verleihung des Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Preises durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft December 1997 Wahl in den wissenschaftlichen Beirat der Fritz-Thyssen-Stiftung


Selbstaendige Veroeffentlichungen (independent publications):

1. Lamartines Meditations poetiques. Untersuchungen zur Bedeutungskonstitution im Wider streit von Lesererwartung und Textstruktur, Stuttgart 1985.

2. Die Diskussion um das ridiculum im 16. Jahrhundert in Italien. Die Anfaenge der neuzeitlichen Theorie des Komischen in der italienischen Renaissance (Habilitationsschrift, er scheint in: Text und Kontext, hg. v. K. W. Hempfer, Bd. 6, Steiner, Stuttgart (Ms. 470 S.).

3. Verbum Dei e la parola dellë uomo. Studi sul Trecento (Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca, Giovanni Boccaccio), Beihefte der Zeitschrift Lettere Italiane, hg. v. V. Branca, Florenz 1999.

4. Musica mundana. Die Musik in Dantes Goettlicher Komoedie, erscheint: Tuebingen 1999 (Vortraege und Schriften des Petrarca-Instituts)

Aufsaetze in Zeitschriften und Sammelwerken (Essays in Journals and Collected editions):

1. "Erzaehlung und Beschreibung. Ueberlegungen zu einem Merkmal fiktionaler erzaehlender Texte", in: Romanistisches Jahrbuch 33 (1982), S. 67-84.

2. "Das Spiel mit der Mimesis. Aspekte der Wirklichkeitsdarstellung in einigen Texten der Fleurs du Mal", in: Zeitschrift fuer franzoesische Sprache und Literatur 94 (1984), S. 246-271.

3. "Intertextualitaet und die Nachahmungslehre der italienischen Renaissance. Ueberlegungen zu einem aktuellen Begriff aus historischer Sicht (I)", in: Italienische Studien 8 (1985), S. 27-38.

4. "Intertextualitaet und die Nachahmungslehre der italienischen Renaissance. Ueber legungen zu einem aktuellen Begriff aus historischer Sicht (II)", in: Italienische Studien 9 (1986), S. 19-35.

5. (mit K. W. Hempfer), "Franzoesische Lyrik im 18. Jahrhundert", in: D. Janik (Hg.), Die franzoesische Lyrik, Darmstadt 1987, S. 267-341.

6. "Rhetorik vs. Hermeneutik? Anmerkungen zum Allegorie-Verstaendnis in Augustinus' De doctrina christiana", in: Kodikas 10 (1987), S. 119-133.

7. "Dichtung und Wahrheit - Zur Legitimitaet der Fiktion in der Poetologie des Cinquecento", in: K. W. Hempfer (Hg.), Die Ritterepik der Renaissance, Stuttgart 1989, S. 77-122.

8. "Erzaehlperspektive - point of view - focalisation. Ueberlegungen zu einem Konzept der Erzaehltheorie", in: Zeitschrift fuer franzoesische Sprache und Literatur 98 (1988), S. 237-255.

9. "Erklaerungsanspruch und Erklaerungsdefizit im Avant-propos von Balzacs Com die humaine (mit einem Ausblick auf die Illusions perdues)", in: Zeitschrift fuer franzoesische Sprache und Literatur 99 (1989), S. 261-286.

10. "Die Herrin des Canzoniere und ihre Homonyme. Zu Petrarcas Umgang mit der Laura-Symbolik", in: Romanische Forschungen 101 (1989), S. 14-41.

11. "Die Sprache der Literaturwissenschaft zwischen Theoriebildung und Ideologie", in: Wohin geht die Sprache? Wirklichkeit - Kommunikation - Kompetenz, hg. v. J. Mittelstrass, Essen 1989, S. 122-131.

12. "Zur Fortuna-Konzeption in Boccaccios Decameron", in: Italienische Studien 12 (l990), S. 7-25.

13. "Era il giorno ch'al sol si scoloraro per la piet del suo factore i rai' - Zum Ver ltnis von Sinnstruktur und poetischem Verfahren in Petrarcas Canzoniere" in: Romanistisches Jahr buch 39 (l988), S. 45-72. (Ital. bersetzung s. E.4).

14. "Kausalit t und Semiotik. Zu Canellos Adaptation von Taines Programm einer Wissenschaft der Literatur", in: H. Harth/S. Kleinert/B. Wagner (Hgg.), Konflikt der Diskurse. Zum Verhaeltnis von Literatur und Wissenschaft im modernen Italien, Tuebingen 1991, S. 43-67.

15. "Intertextualit t als Substanzkonstitution. Zur Lyrik des Frauenlobs im Duecento: Giacomo da Lentini, Guido Guinizelli, Guido Cavalcanti, Dante Alighieri", in: Poetica 23 (1991), S. 20-67.

16. "Die Selbstbestimmung des petrarkistischen Diskurses im Pro mialsonett (Giovanni Della Casa - Gaspara Stampa) im Spiegel der neueren Diskussion um den Petrarkismus", in: Germanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift 42 (1992), S. 381-414.

17. "Calvinos Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore und die Problematisierung des auto referentiellen Diskurses", erscheint in: K.W. Hempfer (Hg.), Poststrukturalismus - Dekonstruktion - Postmoderne, Stuttgart 1992, S. 75-94.

18. "Lyrische Rede als Kommentar. Anmerkungen zur Petrarca-Imitatio in Bembos Rime, erscheint in: K.W. Hempfer/G. Regn (Hgg.), Text und Kontext, Der Petrarkistische Diskurs, I. Spielraeume, Stuttgart 1993, S. 29-76.

19. "Affektintimitaet und Diskurs Oeffentlichkeit - Shakespeares dark-lady-Sonette als Dekonstruktion des tradierten lyrischen Diskurses", in: D. Mehl/W. Wei (Hgg.), Shakespeares Sonette in europaeischen Perspektiven, Ein Symposium. Studien zur Englischen Literatur, Bd. 5, Muenster/Hamburg 1993, S. 206-242.

20. "Verwandlung und Aufloesung der Poetik des Fin' Amors bei Petrarca und Charles D'Orl ans - Transformationen der spaetmittelalterlichen Lyrik diskutiert am Beispiel der Rhetorik des Paradox", in: W.D. Stempel (Hg.), Musique naturele. Interpretationen zur franzoesischen Lyrik des Spaetmittelalters, Muenchen 1995, S. 261 - 350. (Ital. Uebersetzung s. E.4).

21. "Boccaccios Decameron zwischen Archaik und Modernitaet. Ueberlegungen zur achten Novelle des zehnten Tages", s. E.3 , S. 149 - 185.

22. "Petrarcas Augustinismus und die Ecriture der Ventoux-Epistel, in: Poetica 26, (1994), S. 31-69. (Ital. Uebersetzung s. E.4).

23. "Die Zeichen des Alltags und die Zeichen der Hoelle. Dantes Inferno und der mittelalterliche 'Realismus'", in: A. Sabban/Ch. Schmitt (Hgg.), Sprachlicher Alltag. Linguistik - Rhetorik - Literaturwissenschaft. Festschrift f r Wolf-Dieter Stempel, T bingen 1994, S. 145-195.

24. "Der Fuerst als Figur der Selbstinszenierung. Machiavellis Principe und der Verfall mittelalterlicher Legitimationen der Macht", in: Auffuehrung und Schrift in Mittelalter und frueher Neuzeit, hg. v. J.-D. Mueller, Stuttgart 1996, S. 530-561. 25. "Pygmalion in Petrarcas Canzoniere. Zur Geburt aesthetischer Illusion aus dem Ungeist des Begehrens", in: Pygmalion. Die Geschichte des Mythos in der abendlaendischen Kultur, hg. v. M. Mayer u. G. Neumann, Freiburg 1997, S. 197-223.

26. "Lachen und Komik als Gegenstand fr hneuzeitlicher Theoriebildung. Rezeption und Verwandlung antiker Definitionen von risus und ridiculum in der italienischen Renaissan ce", in: Semiotik, Rhetorik und Soziologie des Lachens. Vergleichende Studien zum Funk tionswandel des Lachens vom Mittelalter zur Gegenwart, hg. v. L. Fietz u. a., T bin gen 1996, S. 123-153.

27. "Nachahmung und Wahrheitsanspruch. Seneca - Petrarca - Montaigne", in: Me stische Komparatistik. Festschrift fuer Franz-Josef Worstbrock zum 60. Geburtstag, Stuttgart/Leipzig 1997, S. 95-149.

28. "Montaignes 'Skeptizismus'. Zur Apologie de Raimond Sebond (Essais:II,12)", in : Poststrukturalismus. Herausforderung an die Literaturwissenschaft, hg. v. G. Neumann, Stuttgart 1997, S. 504-539.

29. "Petrarcas Lyrik des Selbstverlusts. Zur Kanzone Nr. 360 (mit einem Exkurs zur Geschichte christlicher Semantik des Eros)", in: Geschichte und Vorgeschichte der modernen Subjektivitaet, hg. v. R. L. Fetz, R. Hagenbaechle und P. Schulz, Berlin/New York 1998, S. 567-611.

30. "Tragischer Fall und verborgene Wahrheit. Torquato Tassos Re Torrismondo", in: Tragoedie. Idee und Transformation, hg. v. H. Flashar, Stuttgart/Leipzig 1997, S. 84-108.

31. "Zeit und Repraesentation. Zu Jean-Jacques Rousseaus Essai sur l'origine des langues", Vorlage zum Kolloquium Embarquement pour l'Ecriture. Jacques Derridas "Grammalogie" revisited, Freiburg, November 1995, erscheint in den Akten der Tagung.

32. "Jenseitige Kunst oder Gott als Bildhauer. Die Reliefs in Dantes Purgatorio (Pg. X-XII), in: Mimesis und Simulation, s. E6, S. 309-356.

33. "Zeitlichkeit und Ewigkeit in Dantes Purgatorio. Das Fuerstental am Fu des L rungs bergs (Dante, Divina Commedia, Pg VII-VIII), erscheint in: Werk und Diskurs. Festschrift fuer Karlheinz Stierle zum 60. Geburtstag, hg. v. D. Ingenschay und H. Pfeiffer, Ms. 39 S.

34. "Versuch eines Plaedoyers fuer das Experiment. Die Chancen einer paradoxen Wissenschaft, in: Zeitschrift f r franz sische Sprache und Literatur 107 (1997), S. 45-50 (eine englische Version erscheint in The Future of Literary Studies, Sondernummer der Canadian Review of >Comparative Literature, hg. v. H.-U. Gumbrecht u. W. Moser).

35. "Renaissance - Wiedergeburt. Zur Arch ologie eines Epochennamens (Giorgio Vasari - Jules Michelet)Ó, in: Saeculum tamquam aureum. Internationales Symposion zur italienischen Renaissance des 14-16. Jahrhunderts. Vortr ge, hg. v. U. Ecker und C. Zintzen, Hildesheim 1997, S. 59-108 (Eine gekuerzte englische Version "Renaissance - Rebirth. Some Remarks about the Humanistic Interpretation of History" erscheint als Internet-Publikation der Tagung "Humanistic Discourses" der Siemensstiftung M nchen, September 1996.)

36. "Herrschaft durch Schoenheit. Die Minnedame", Vortrag gehalten im Rahmen der Wintervorlesung 1996/97 der Universitaet Eichstaett. Erscheint in der Publikation der Vorlesungsreihe.

37. "Zur Anagnorisis in der klassischen franz sischen Trag die (Corneille: Oedipe, Racine: Iphigenie en Aulide), erscheint in: Festschrift fuer Wolfgang Harms zum 60. Geburtstag, hg. v. P. Strohschneider u. a.

38. "Das Ende des Sacrum Imperium. Verwandlungen der Repraesentation von Geschichte zwischen Dante und Petrarca", Vorlage zum 11. Reisensburger Rundgespr ch, Juni 1997, erscheint in den Akten der Tagung, Ms. 32 Seiten.

39. "Poetik der Erloesung. Dantes Commedia als Verwandlung und Neubegruendung mittelalterlicher Allegorese", Vorlage zum Kolloquium Heidelberg, Juli 1997, erscheint in den Akten der Tagung, Ms. 19. S.

40. "The Spectacle of Redemption (Dante, Divina Commedia, Purgatorio XXVIII-XXXII)Ó, Vortrag gehalten auf dem Kolloquium Medieval Theatricality, Yale, April 1996, erscheint in Medieval Theatricality (s. E 7).

41. "Corneilles theatrum gloriae. Paradoxien der Ehre und tragische KasuistikÓ, Vorlage zum Romanistischen Kolloquium, Bad Homburg, September 1997, erscheint in den Akten der Tagung, Ms. 39. S.

42. "Lorenzo Vallas Konzept der Geschichte und der Fall der Konstantinischen Schenkung. Zur 'Modernit t von De falso credita et ementita Constantini donatione. Vorlage zum Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Forum "Historiziation in the history of scholarship"; Heidelberg, erscheint in den Akten der Tagung, Ms. 20 S.

43. "Dantes poetisches Selbstverstaendnis (Convivio Ů Divina Commedia)", Vortrag gehalten im Rahmen des Italianistentags Konstanz 1997, erscheint in den Akten der Tagung (Ms. 25 S.)

44. "Videre Ů Invidere. The Phenomenology of Perception and the Ontology of the PurgatoryÓ, erscheint in: Modern Language Notes (Ms. 27 S.). Deutsche Version in: Deutsches Dante-Jahrbuch.

Noel Swerdlow

Topic: "The Requirements for Scientific Cosmology Illustrated by the First Scientific Cosmology, Ptolemy's"

The purpose of our presentation is to show that there was one person, although perhaps only one, who developed a rigorously scientific cosmology nearly two thousand years ago. By cosmology I mean a description of the universe as a whole and of the arrangement of its principal parts. But for a cosmology to be considered scientific, three criteria must be met: it must be quantitative, physical, and empirical. Quantitative means that it must assign some scale of distances and sizes to its parts. Physical means that it must rest upon some kind of physical or mechanical principles for the ordering and motion of its parts. Finally, empirical means that it must either be derived from observation or, if derived theoretically, as from physical or mechanical principles, it must be confirmed by observation. If now we apply these criteria, the earliest scientific cosmology of which we have any knowledge is that of Ptolemy, who lived in Alexandria in the second century. The lecture is an exposition of Ptolemy's empirical demonstrations of the spherical heavens and central spherical earth, of each of the parts of his planetary theory, of the physical basis of his spherical, physical planetary models, and of how he used the principle that the spheres of the models of successive planets are contiguous to establish the distances and sizes of all the bodies in the planetary system. This cosmology endured for near fifteen hundred years, longer than any other, and was the accepted form of the universe, down to its least details, for philosophers, theologians, writers, and artists through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, of which some examples will be given.

Biography / Publications:
My original field of study in college, UCLA, and graduate school, Yale, was musicology, and the history of science was a secondary field in graduate school. But after a year of work on a none-too-interesting dissertation on medieval music theory, I changed topics to one on ancient and medieval astronomy and ended up a historian of science, although I occasionlly teach for the Music Department at Chicago. My work is mostly on the history of the exact sciences, particularly astronomy, from antiquity to the seventeenth century. Among the publications that I consider of interest are, with O. Neugebauer, Mathematical Astronomy in Copernicus's De Revolutionibus (1984) and The Babylonian Theory of the Planets (1998). I am currently working on a book on Galileo's astronomy and conflicts with the Church.

Miguel Tamen

Topic: "Big Pictures"

Our world is filled with big pictures: pictures of nature, of human kind, of society, of language, of evolution and, not least, pictures of our world. However, there seem to be two distinct uses of the phrase 'big pictures.' The first one suggests that big pictures are a special and reprehensible kind of explanation. The second, that big pictures are just a special kind of explanation. Both the humanities and what humanists call 'the sciences' know this problem well, of which a tentative description will be presented. Such a description will lead to a characterization of a general attitude towards big pictures or, perhaps, to a characterization of the role big pictures play in current available explanations, in the sciences and in the humanities.

Miguel Tamen was born in Lisbon, in 1960, and studied both at the University of Lisbon (BA, 1982 /MA, 1985 /"Agregação", 1995), and at the University of Minnesota (PhD, 1989).

Currently he is Senior Associate Professor at the Romance Literatures Department and Program in Literary Theory, University of Lisbon, as well as Chair of the Program in Literary Theory . In 1996/7 he was Visiting Professor at Stanford University.

Tamen has written three books: The Matter of the Facts (forthcoming), Manners of Interpretation. The Ends of Argument in Literary Studies (1993) and HermenÍutica e mal-estar (1987), published about fifty articles (in Portuguese, German, French and English), on literary theory, literature, and philosophy, and translated works by Jorge Luis Borges, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Harold Bloom, and Paul de Man.

He is currently completing a fourth book on interpretation as a specific way of dealing with things. The book will include sections on trials of inanimate objects and on the theology of the icon in 9th century Byzantium.

Karl Ludwig Pfeiffer

Topic: "Science and Literature: Can We Say More about a Field (too) Well Tilled?"



Sprachtheorie, Wissenschaftstheorie und das Problem der Textinterpretation, Amsterdam: Rodopi 1974 Wissenschaft als Sujet im modernen englischen Roman, Konstanz: Universitätsverlag 1979

Bilder der Realität und die Realität der Bilder. Verbrauchte Formen in den Romanen George Merediths, München: Fink 1981

Steps towards an Anthropology of Media, Stanford: Stanford University Press 1998/99 (deutsche Ausgabe Das Mediale und das Imaginäre. Dimensionen kulturanthropologischer Medientheorie, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1999)

Theorie als kulturelles Ereignis. (erscheint: Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1999)

Literatur und Naturwissenschaften, Siegener Studien 35 (1983/84) Stil - Geschichten und Funktionen eines kulturwissenschaftlichen Diskurselements, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1986 (stw 633), 803 S. (Zus. mit H. U. Gumbrecht)

Materialität der Kommunikation, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1988 (stw 750), 943 S. (Zus. mit H. U. Gumbrecht) (veränderte amerik. Ausgabe Stanford University Press 1994)

Kommunikationsformen als Lebensformen, München: Fink, 309 S.1990 (Zus. mit Michael Walter)

Paradoxien, Dissonanzen, Zusammenbrüche: Situationen offener Epistemologie, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1991 (stw 925), 863 S. (Zus. mit H. U. Gumbrecht)

Geisteswissen - vom wissenschaftspolitischen Problem zur problemorientierten Wissenschaft, Frankfurt/Main: VAS-Verlag 1991, 171 S. (zus. mit E. Müller und B. Wagner)

Autorität - Spektren harter Kommunikation, Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1992, 275 S. (zus. mit R. Kray und Th. Studer)

Schrift, München: Fink 1993 (zus. mit H.U. Gumbrecht)

Materialities of Communication, Stanford: Stanford UP 1994 (zus. mit H.U. Gumbrecht)

Theorie als kulturelles Ereignis, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1999

Interpretation und Marxismus. Überlegungen zur marxistischen Methode aus Anlaß von Christian Enzensbergers Viktorianische Lyrik, Anglia 92 (1974), 349-379

Edward Moore. The Gamester. In: H. Kosok, Hg., Das englische Drama im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag 1976, 103-116

Struktur- und Funktionsprobleme der Allegorie, DVjS 51 (1977), 575-606

The Novel and Society. Reflections on the Interaction of Literary and Cultural Paradigms, PTL. A Journal for Descriptive Poetics and the Theory of Literature 3 (1978), 45-69

Zur Theorie des Tragischen in der Tragödie der frühen Stuart-Zeit, Germanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift 29 (1979), 170-184

Was kann Praxisbezug in der Literaturdidaktik heißen?, Siegener Studien 28 (1980/81), 1-11

Der Denkstil Hamlets. Theorie und Praxis der Geschichtlichkeit eines Dramas, Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft West 1982, 99-118

Apocalypse Now: Warum geht die Welt literarisch so oft unter?, Siegener Hochschulblätter 5 (1982), 12-25

Apocalypse: It's Now or Never - Wie und zu welchem Ende geht die Welt so oft unter?, Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 83 (1982), 181-196

Fin de siècle und Endzeitbewußtsein, in: I. Boltz, M. Pfister, B. Schulte-Middelich, Hgg., Die 'Nineties' im Spannungsfeld von Viktorianismus und Moderne, München: Francke 1983, 35-52

Wahrheit und Herrschaft. Zum systematischen Problem in Bacons New Atlantis, in: K. L. Berghan, H. U. Seeber, Hgg., Literarische Utopien von Moore bis zur Gegenwart, Königstein: Athenäum 1983, 5o-58

Interpretation: Anthropology and the Ecology of Mind, Poetics 12 (1983), 165-183

Rettung oder Verabschiedung der Hermeneutik? Funktionsgeschichte und Wirkungs-potential hermeneutischer Denkfiguren der 70er Jahre, Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 14 (1983), 46-67

Einleitung: Strukturen und Geltungen: Mathematik und Kunst, Literatur und Natur-wissenschaften, Siegener Studien 35 (1983/84), 3-6

Literatur und Naturwissenschaften - Eine Problemskizze, Siegener Studien 35 (1983/84), 45-57

Wahlverwandtschaften? Über Literatur, Phantasie, Sport, Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 92 (1984), 279-301

Präsuppositionen kulturellen Schaffens: Studien zu einer Verarbeitungsgeschichte der englischen Literatur im 19. Jahrhundert, in: H. U. Gumbrecht, U. Link-Heer, Hgg., Epochenschwellen und Epochenstrukturen, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1985, 265-282

Anthropological Pragmatics: Literature und Interpretation as a Niche in Mental Ecology? Amerikastudien/American Studies 30 (1985), 27-36

Shakespeare - Touchstone of Mentalities and Scholarship, in: FB Sprach- und Literatur-wissenschaften, Univ. GH Siegen, Hg., Kontinuität und Wandel. Festschrift für Leonhard Alfes, Siegen 1985, 126-138

Bedingungen und Bedürfnisse: Literarische Landschaften im England des 19. Jahrhunderts, in: M. Smuda, Hg., Landschaft, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1986, 178-2O2

Produktive Labilität - Funktionen des Stilbegrifs, in: H. U. Gumbrecht, K. L. Pfeiffer, Hgg., Stil - Geschichten und Funktionen eines kulturwissenschaftlichen Diskurs-elements, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1986, 683-723

Tiger und Papiertiger: Zähmungsversuche von Sport und Literatur, in: Nanda Fischer, red., Sport und Literatur, dvs-Protokolle Nr. 23, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1986, 3-28

Dance, Sport, and Cultural Mediation: European Perspectives, Arete. The Journal of Sport Literature 4 (1986/87), 9-22

How to do art with things - Kunsthandwerk und universalistische Ästhetik im England des 19. Jahrhunderts, in: H. Pfeiffer, H. R. Jauß, F. Gaillard, Hgg., Art social und art industriel. Funktionen der Kunst im Zeitalter des Industrialismus, München: Fink 1987, 58-77

Kunst und Industrielle Revolution oder die Vertracktheit des Trivialen, in Pfeiffer, Jauß, Gaillard, Hgg., s. o., 273-280 Was richtig ist, ist immer modern ..., in: R. Freifrau v. Ledebur, R. Jehmlich, Hgg., Schreibfest. Modisches und Methodisches aus englischen Gefilden für Helmut Jochems, Siegen: FB Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Univ. GH Siegen 1987, 65-74

Implications of the Intellectual Migration: Two Cultures Once Again?, in: L. Bredella, D. Haack, Hgg., Studies in Intercultural Communication, Tübingen: Narr 1988, 37-59

Vertreibung des Geistes - Deutsche Fallstudien zur Selbstdemontage Alteuropas, in: R. Geißler, W. Popp, Hgg., Wissenschaft und Nationalsozialismus, Essen: Blaue Eule 1988, 79-101

Materialität der Kommunikation?, in: H. U. Gumbrecht, K. L Pfeiffer, Hgg., Materialität der Kommunikation, Frankfurt/Main:Suhrkamp 1988, 15-28

Dimensionen der 'Literatur'. Ein spekulativer Versuch, in: H. U. Gumbrecht, K. L. Pfeiffer, Hgg., Materialität ....,730-762

Tragik und Tragisches: Zur Tragikomödie eines Begriffsschicksals, in: Ch. Wagenknecht, Hg., Zur Terminologie der Literaturwissenschaft, Stuttgart: Metzler 1988, 363-372

Mentalität und Medium: Detektivroman, Großstadt oder ein zweiter Weg in die Moderne, Poetica 20 (1988) 234-259

William Shakespeare: Versuch - oder Parodie? einer Einführung, in: Reimer Jehmlich, Helmut Jochems, Hgg., Festschrift für Ruth Freifrau von Ledebur, Siegen: FB Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Univ. GH Siegen 1989, 95-105

Ich-Diskurse, Ich-Schicksale - Zur Geschichte einer kategorialen Verwischung, in: M. Pfister, Hg., Die Modernisierung des Ich, Passau: Rothe 1989, 13-21

Der Körper des Tennisspielers - Nastases Tenniskrimi und der entspannte Größenwahn, in: Nanda Fischer, red., Heldenmythen und Körperqualen, dvs-Protokolle Nr. 37, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1989, 135-143

Körper, Handeln, System. Henry IV und andere Beispiele, Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft West 1989, 178-195

Subjekte, Texte und Geschichte. Momente und Modelle einer historischen Subjekttheorie, Zeitschrift für Germanistik (DDR) 10 (1989), 645-669

Zum systematischen Stand der Fiktionstheorie, Journal for General Philosophy of Science (Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie) 21 (1990), 135-156

Fiction: On the Fate of a Concept Between Philosophy and Literary Theory, in: F. Burwick, W. Pape, Hgg., Aesthetic Illusion, Berlin/New York: de Gruyter 1990, 92-104

Kommunikationsformen als Lebensformen. Zum wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Ort eines Programms, in: K. L. Pfeiffer, Michael Walter, Hgg., Kommunikationsformen als Lebensformen, München: Fink 1990, 15-36

Nachwort zu Luiz Costa Lima, Die Kontrolle des Imaginären. Vernunft und Imagination in der Moderne, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1990, 349-361

The Tragic: On the Relations between Philosophical Concepts and Literary Experience, LiLi. Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Lingustik 20 (1990), 24-35

Theorien und ihre 'Dynamik' in den westlichen Geistes- und Literaturwissenschaften, Die Deutsche Literatur (Doitsu Bungaku) 34 (1990) (Japan), 1-50

Schwebende Referenzen und Verhaltenskultur: Japan und die Praxis permanenter Postmoderne, in: H. U. Gumbrecht, Robert Weimann, Hgg., Postmoderne - Globale Differenz, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1991, 344-353

(Zus. mit Ralph Kray) Paradoxien, Dissonanzen, Zusammenbrüche: Vom Ende und Fortgang der Provokationen, in: H. U. Gumbrecht, K. L. Pfeiffer, Hgg., Paradoxien, Dissonanzen, Zusammenbrüche. Situationen offener Epistemologie, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1991, 13-31

(Zus. mit Peter Gendolla) Der gesellschaftliche Kommunikationsdruck und sein Anderes: Zur Spezialisierung des Erhabenen im zeitgenössischen Kriminalroman, in: H. U. Gumbrecht, K. L. Pfeiffer, Hgg., Paradoxien ...., 292-315

Problemgeschichte(n), in: E. Müller, K.L. Pfeiffer, B. Wagner, Hgg., 'Geisteswissen' - vom wissenschaftspolitischen Problem zur problemorientierten Wissenschaft, Frankfurt/Main: VAS-Verlag 1991, 129-146

Die (Neu-)Inszenierung des Anthropologischen: Zur Funktionsgeschichte von Theater und Oper, in: Zeitschrift für Germanistik, Neue Folge 1, 1992, 7-30

Autorität. Geschichtliche Performanz und kulturelle Fiktionalität, in: Autorität. (zus. mit R. Kray und Th. Studer), 11-21 Schrift - Geschichten, Typologien, Theorien, in: Gumbrecht, Pfeiffer, Hgg., Schrift, München: Fink 1993, 9-18

The Materiality of Communication, in: Gumbrecht, Pfeiffer, Materialities of Communication, Stanford: Stanford UP 1994, 1-12

The Black Hole of Culture: Japan, Radical Otherness and the Vanishing of Difference (or, "In Japan Everything Normal"), in: Sanford Budick, Wolfgang Iser, Hgg., The Translatability of Cultures, Stanford: Stanford UP 1996, 186-203, 334-336

Suggestiveness or Interpretation: On the Vitality of Appearances, in: Walter Pape and Frederick Burwick, Hgg., Reflecting Senses. Perception and Appearance in Literature, Culture, and the Arts, Berlin / New York: De Gruyter 1995, 15-32

Culture and the Humanities: Sympotomatologies, Mostly Historical, Mainly German. (9S., 1995)

Metamorphosen und Differenzen - Altertümliche Tierdichtung und gegenwärtige Schlüsselbegriffe. In: Diagonal Heft 2, 1995, 35-52

"Vom Volk der Dichter und Denker zum Volk der Richter und Henker". Eine mediengeschichtliche Betrachtung, Die Deutsche Literatur (Doitsu Bungaku) 41 (1997, Japan), 202-206

Geist, Kultur, Markt. Zur wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Symptomatologie der Allgemeinen Literaturiwissenschaft. In: Carsten Zelle, Hrsg., Allgemeine Literaturwissenschaft. Profile im Pluralismus, Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1998 (ca. 25 S., im Druck)

Gilbert and Sullivan or the Cultural Poverty of Systems Theory. In: Jürgen Esser, Hrsg., Anglistentag 1997. Proceedings (ca. 10S., 1998, im Druck)

Humanistic Discourse Between Cultural Performance and Social Institutionalization - General and Comparative Memoranda. (10S., 1998)

Lichtenberg, Hegel und die ausgebliebenen Folgen: Literatursystem, Medienreflexion und Ästhetik zwischen 1790 und 1850. In: Jürgen Klein, Gregor Vogt-Spira, Hrsgg., Domänen der Literaturwissenschaft, Tübingen: Narr 1998 (ca. 12S., i.V.)

Theorie als kulturelles Ereignis - ein Versuch. In: Pfeiffer, Hrsg., Theorie als kulturelles Ereignis, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1999 (ca. 15S., i.V.)

Paul Valéry - die Vergeblichkeit der Theorie und das okkasionell-theoretisierende Spiel. In: Pfeiffer, Hrsg., Theorie als kulturelles Ereignis, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1999 (ca. 15S., i.V.)

Forschungsberichte und Rezensionsartikel
Ina Schabert, Hg., Shakespeare-Handbuch, Stuttgart: Kröner 1972, in: Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen 227 (1975), 242-268

Ulrich Broich, Gattungen des modernen englischen Romans, Wiesbaden: Athenaion 1975, in: Anglia 96 (1978), 532-539

Gerhard Hoffmann, Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit. Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman, Stuttgart: Metzler 1978, in: Poetica 12 (1980), 249-256.

Schwierigkeiten mit der Fiktion (Rezensionsartikel zu D. Henrich, W. Iser, Hgg., Funktionen des Fiktiven, München: Fink 1983; W. Oelmüller, Hg., Kolloquium Kunst und Philosophie 2, Paderborn: Schöningh 1982; A. Assmann, Die Legitimität der Fiktion, München: Fink 1980), in: Philosophische Rundschau 32 (1985), 91-104

Robert Weimann, Shakespeare und die Macht der Mimesis: Autorität und Repräsentation im elisabethanischen Theater, Berlin/Weimar:Aufbau Verlag, Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft West 1990, 269-278

Shakespeare in zwei neuen deutschen Geschichten der englischen Literatur (Rezensionsartikel zu B. Fabian, Hg., Die englische Literatur, 2 Bde., München: Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag 1991 und H.U. Seeber, Hg., Englische Literaturgeschichte, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung 1991), in: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft / Deutsche Shakespeare-Gesellschaft West 1993, 225-229

N. Frye, The Secular Scripture. A Study of the Structure of Romance, Cambridge, MA 1976, in: Anglia 99 (1981), 241-245

J. Kincaid, Tennyson's Major Poems. The Comic and Ironic Patterns, New Haven und London 1975, in: Anglia 99 (1981), 522-525

M. Smuda, Der Gegenstand in der bildenden Kunst und Literatur, München 1979, in: Arcadia 16 (1981), 63-67

A. Neuschäfer, Das "Théâtre du soleil". Commedia dell'arte und création collective, Rheinfelden 1983, in: Medienwissenschaft 2 (1984), 153-156.


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